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(a) Penny Shaped Crack

If the crack can be assumed to be circular, one may take as the `material coordinate' the coordinates of a unit circle . Using the 6 shape parameters () introduced in Nishimura & Kobayashi[30] one describes S as


where the capital indices run from 1 to 2. Also, some of the formulae shown so far are simplified considerably. For example, (26) now reduces to

where the coordinate axis is chosen to align with .

N. Nishimura
Thu Feb 19 01:36:51 JST 1998